Viruses
Russell Kightley
Virus reconstructions

Results

  • Three influenza virus particles against a textured blue background. The cutaway model at the bottom of the picture shows the internal structures. Superficially, you can see the spikes of Haemagglutinin (red) and Neuraminidase (squarish and yellow). These spikes pass through the greenish viral envelope to dock with the underlying matrix (M) proteins shown in purple. Inside the matrix shell you can glimpse the dark yellow ribonucleoproteins that house the viral genome. Flu viruses have eight of these RNPs. If two or more strains infect the same cell, then progeny viruses can incorporate segments from more than one parent leading to new and possibly more dangerous strains. This is called genetic reassortment. Flu occurs in seasonal epidemics and periodically as major pandemics.Three influenza virus particles against a textured blue background. The cutaway model at the bottom of the picture shows the internal structures. Superficially, you can see the spikes of Haemagglutinin (red) and Neuraminidase (squarish and yellow). These spikes pass through the greenish viral envelope to dock with the underlying matrix (M) proteins shown in purple. Inside the matrix shell you can glimpse the dark yellow ribonucleoproteins that house the viral genome. Flu viruses have eight of these RNPs. If two or more strains infect the same cell, then progeny viruses can incorporate segments from more than one parent leading to new and possibly more dangerous strains. This is called genetic reassortment. Flu occurs in seasonal epidemics and periodically as major pandemics.
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    • VIRUS-Influenza-3D-scene-1.tiff
      21/02/2012: Three influenza virus particles against a textured blue background. The cutaway model at the bottom of the picture shows the internal structures. Superficially, you can see the spikes of Haemagglutinin (red) and Neuraminidase (squarish and yellow). These spikes pass through the greenish viral envelope to dock with the underlying matrix (M) proteins shown in purple. Inside the matrix shell you can glimpse the dark yellow ribonucleoproteins that house the viral genome. Flu viruses have eight of these RNPs. If two or more strains infect the same cell, then progeny viruses can incorporate segments from more than one parent leading to new and possibly more dangerous strains. This is called genetic reassortment. Flu occurs in seasonal epidemics and periodically as major pandemics.
  • Image of an influenza virus particle, the cause of flu. These viruses are covered by spikes of Haemagglutinin (red projections) and Neuraminidase (the squarish yellow projections), hence the H and N names, such as H5N1. These spikes pass through the greenish viral envelope to dock with the underlying matrix (M) proteins. Flu viruses have a segmented genome which can get jumbled up during replication (gene mixing). This allows different strains to easily form from existing types. Flu occurs in seasonal epidemics and periodically as major pandemics.Image of an influenza virus particle, the cause of flu. These viruses are covered by spikes of Haemagglutinin (red projections) and Neuraminidase (the squarish yellow projections), hence the H and N names, such as H5N1. These spikes pass through the greenish viral envelope to dock with the underlying matrix (M) proteins. Flu viruses have a segmented genome which can get jumbled up during replication (gene mixing). This allows different strains to easily form from existing types. Flu occurs in seasonal epidemics and periodically as major pandemics.
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    • VIRUS-Influenza-3D-M2.tiff
      23/02/2012: Image of an influenza virus particle, the cause of flu. These viruses are covered by spikes of Haemagglutinin (red projections) and Neuraminidase (the squarish yellow projections), hence the H and N names, such as H5N1. These spikes pass through the greenish viral envelope to dock with the underlying matrix (M) proteins. Flu viruses have a segmented genome which can get jumbled up during replication (gene mixing). This allows different strains to easily form from existing types. Flu occurs in seasonal epidemics and periodically as major pandemics.
  • Ebola Virus Particles floating above an infected cell. On the cell surface are viral trimeric spikes (glycoprotein) that will project from newly emerging Ebola particles. Ebola virus particles are long and thin with a central core containing single stranded RNA (ssRNA). There is a matrix layer (red) below the viral envelope (greenish).Ebola Virus Particles floating above an infected cell. On the cell surface are viral trimeric spikes (glycoprotein) that will project from newly emerging Ebola particles. Ebola virus particles are long and thin with a central core containing single stranded RNA (ssRNA). There is a matrix layer (red) below the viral envelope (greenish).
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    • Ebola-25-scene.tiff
      21/09/2014: Ebola Virus Particles floating above an infected cell. On the cell surface are viral trimeric spikes (glycoprotein) that will project from newly emerging Ebola particles. Ebola virus particles are long and thin with a central core containing single stranded RNA (ssRNA). There is a matrix layer (red) below the viral envelope (greenish).
  • Ebola Virus Particles above an infected cell. On the cell surface are viral spikes (glycoprotein) that will project from newly emerging Ebola particles.Ebola Virus Particles above an infected cell. On the cell surface are viral spikes (glycoprotein) that will project from newly emerging Ebola particles.
  • Ebola Virus Particles floating above an infected cell. On the cell surface are viral trimeric spikes (glycoprotein) that will project from newly emerging Ebola particles. Ebola virus particles are long and thin with a central core containing single stranded RNA (ssRNA). There is a matrix layer (red) below the viral envelope (greenish).Ebola Virus Particles floating above an infected cell. On the cell surface are viral trimeric spikes (glycoprotein) that will project from newly emerging Ebola particles. Ebola virus particles are long and thin with a central core containing single stranded RNA (ssRNA). There is a matrix layer (red) below the viral envelope (greenish).
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    • Ebola-24-scene.tiff
      21/09/2014: Ebola Virus Particles floating above an infected cell. On the cell surface are viral trimeric spikes (glycoprotein) that will project from newly emerging Ebola particles. Ebola virus particles are long and thin with a central core containing single stranded RNA (ssRNA). There is a matrix layer (red) below the viral envelope (greenish).
  • Ebola Virus Particles floating above an infected cell. On the cell surface are viral trimeric spikes (glycoprotein) that will project from newly emerging Ebola particles. Ebola virus particles are long and thin with a central core containing single stranded RNS (ssRNA). There is a matrix layer (red) below the viral envelope (greenish).Ebola Virus Particles floating above an infected cell. On the cell surface are viral trimeric spikes (glycoprotein) that will project from newly emerging Ebola particles. Ebola virus particles are long and thin with a central core containing single stranded RNS (ssRNA). There is a matrix layer (red) below the viral envelope (greenish).
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    • Ebola-23b-scene.tiff
      21/09/2014: Ebola Virus Particles floating above an infected cell. On the cell surface are viral trimeric spikes (glycoprotein) that will project from newly emerging Ebola particles. Ebola virus particles are long and thin with a central core containing single stranded RNS (ssRNA). There is a matrix layer (red) below the viral envelope (greenish).
  • Ebola Virus Particles floating above an infected cell. On the cell surface are viral trimeric spikes (glycoprotein) that will project from newly emerging Ebola particles. Ebola virus particles are long and thin with a central core containing single stranded RNS (ssRNA). There is a matrix layer (red) below the viral envelope (greenish).Ebola Virus Particles floating above an infected cell. On the cell surface are viral trimeric spikes (glycoprotein) that will project from newly emerging Ebola particles. Ebola virus particles are long and thin with a central core containing single stranded RNS (ssRNA). There is a matrix layer (red) below the viral envelope (greenish).
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    • Ebola-22b-scene.tiff
      Deakin, ACT, Australia - 21/09/2014: Ebola Virus Particles floating above an infected cell. On the cell surface are viral trimeric spikes (glycoprotein) that will project from newly emerging Ebola particles. Ebola virus particles are long and thin with a central core containing single stranded RNS (ssRNA). There is a matrix layer (red) below the viral envelope (greenish).
      Credit: Russell Kightley
  • Ebola Virus Particles are long and thin with a central core containing single stranded RNA (ssRNA), shown in yellow. There is a matrix protein layer surrounding the core, shown in red. The matrix is adherent to the viral envelope (derived from the host cell during budding). On the cell surface are viral trimeric spikes (glycoprotein), shown in pink, that the virus uses to attach to target cells.Ebola Virus Particles are long and thin with a central core containing single stranded RNA (ssRNA), shown in yellow. There is a matrix protein layer surrounding the core, shown in red. The matrix is adherent to the viral envelope (derived from the host cell during budding). On the cell surface are viral trimeric spikes (glycoprotein), shown in pink, that the virus uses to attach to target cells.
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    • Ebola-44.tiff
      Deakin, ACT, Australia - 24/09/2014: Ebola Virus Particles are long and thin with a central core containing single stranded RNA (ssRNA), shown in yellow. There is a matrix protein layer surrounding the core, shown in red. The matrix is adherent to the viral envelope (derived from the host cell during budding). On the cell surface are viral trimeric spikes (glycoprotein), shown in pink, that the virus uses to attach to target cells.
      Credit: Russell Kightley
  • Ebola Virus Particles floating above an infected cell. On the cell surface are viral trimeric spikes (glycoprotein) that will project from newly emerging Ebola particles. Ebola virus particles are long and thin with a central core containing single stranded RNA (ssRNA). There is a matrix layer (red) below the viral envelope (greenish).Ebola Virus Particles floating above an infected cell. On the cell surface are viral trimeric spikes (glycoprotein) that will project from newly emerging Ebola particles. Ebola virus particles are long and thin with a central core containing single stranded RNA (ssRNA). There is a matrix layer (red) below the viral envelope (greenish).
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    • Ebola-28-scene.tiff
      22/09/2014: Ebola Virus Particles floating above an infected cell. On the cell surface are viral trimeric spikes (glycoprotein) that will project from newly emerging Ebola particles. Ebola virus particles are long and thin with a central core containing single stranded RNA (ssRNA). There is a matrix layer (red) below the viral envelope (greenish).
  • Ebola Virus Particles floating above an infected cell. On the cell surface are viral trimeric spikes (glycoprotein) that will project from newly emerging Ebola particles. Ebola virus particles are long and thin with a central core containing single stranded RNA (ssRNA). There is a matrix layer (red) below the viral envelope (greenish).Ebola Virus Particles floating above an infected cell. On the cell surface are viral trimeric spikes (glycoprotein) that will project from newly emerging Ebola particles. Ebola virus particles are long and thin with a central core containing single stranded RNA (ssRNA). There is a matrix layer (red) below the viral envelope (greenish).
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    • Ebola-27-scene.tiff
      22/09/2014: Ebola Virus Particles floating above an infected cell. On the cell surface are viral trimeric spikes (glycoprotein) that will project from newly emerging Ebola particles. Ebola virus particles are long and thin with a central core containing single stranded RNA (ssRNA). There is a matrix layer (red) below the viral envelope (greenish).
  • Ebola Virus Particles are long and thin with a central core containing single stranded RNA (ssRNA), shown in yellow. There is a matrix protein layer surrounding the core, shown in red. The matrix is adherent to the viral envelope (derived from the host cell during budding). On the cell surface are viral trimeric spikes (glycoprotein), shown in pink, that the virus uses to attach to target cells.Ebola Virus Particles are long and thin with a central core containing single stranded RNA (ssRNA), shown in yellow. There is a matrix protein layer surrounding the core, shown in red. The matrix is adherent to the viral envelope (derived from the host cell during budding). On the cell surface are viral trimeric spikes (glycoprotein), shown in pink, that the virus uses to attach to target cells.
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    • Ebola-47b.tiff
      25/09/2014: Ebola Virus Particles are long and thin with a central core containing single stranded RNA (ssRNA), shown in yellow. There is a matrix protein layer surrounding the core, shown in red. The matrix is adherent to the viral envelope (derived from the host cell during budding). On the cell surface are viral trimeric spikes (glycoprotein), shown in pink, that the virus uses to attach to target cells.
  • Ebola Virus Particles are long and thin with a central core containing single stranded RNA (ssRNA), shown in yellow. There is a matrix protein layer surrounding the core, shown in red. The matrix is adherent to the viral envelope (derived from the host cell during budding). On the cell surface are viral trimeric spikes (glycoprotein), shown in pink, that the virus uses to attach to target cells.Ebola Virus Particles are long and thin with a central core containing single stranded RNA (ssRNA), shown in yellow. There is a matrix protein layer surrounding the core, shown in red. The matrix is adherent to the viral envelope (derived from the host cell during budding). On the cell surface are viral trimeric spikes (glycoprotein), shown in pink, that the virus uses to attach to target cells.
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    • Ebola Group 46b.tiff
      Deakin, ACT, Australia - 25/09/2014: Ebola Virus Particles are long and thin with a central core containing single stranded RNA (ssRNA), shown in yellow. There is a matrix protein layer surrounding the core, shown in red. The matrix is adherent to the viral envelope (derived from the host cell during budding). On the cell surface are viral trimeric spikes (glycoprotein), shown in pink, that the virus uses to attach to target cells.
      Credit: Russell Kightley
  • Ebola Virus Particles are long and thin with a central core containing single stranded RNA (ssRNA), shown in yellow. There is a matrix protein layer surrounding the core, shown in red. The matrix is adherent to the viral envelope (derived from the host cell during budding). On the cell surface are viral trimeric spikes (glycoprotein), shown in pink, that the virus uses to attach to target cells.Ebola Virus Particles are long and thin with a central core containing single stranded RNA (ssRNA), shown in yellow. There is a matrix protein layer surrounding the core, shown in red. The matrix is adherent to the viral envelope (derived from the host cell during budding). On the cell surface are viral trimeric spikes (glycoprotein), shown in pink, that the virus uses to attach to target cells.
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    • Ebola Group 45b.tiff
      25/09/2014: Ebola Virus Particles are long and thin with a central core containing single stranded RNA (ssRNA), shown in yellow. There is a matrix protein layer surrounding the core, shown in red. The matrix is adherent to the viral envelope (derived from the host cell during budding). On the cell surface are viral trimeric spikes (glycoprotein), shown in pink, that the virus uses to attach to target cells.
  • Translucent cutaway models of HIV showing part of the matrix protein shell (blue), and the viral core (pink). The core contains the viral genetic material (RNA - glows orange). The virus is covered by an envelope (translucent green) derived from the host cell during budding. Some of the spikes that the virus uses to attach to target cells are shown. The background is a complex texture at bottom fading to bright red at the top.Translucent cutaway models of HIV showing part of the matrix protein shell (blue), and the viral core (pink). The core contains the viral genetic material (RNA - glows orange). The virus is covered by an envelope (translucent green) derived from the host cell during budding. Some of the spikes that the virus uses to attach to target cells are shown. The background is a complex texture at bottom fading to bright red at the top.
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    • HIV-three-virions-cutaway-on-Red.tiff
      27/08/2012: Translucent cutaway models of HIV showing part of the matrix protein shell (blue), and the viral core (pink). The core contains the viral genetic material (RNA - glows orange). The virus is covered by an envelope (translucent green) derived from the host cell during budding. Some of the spikes that the virus uses to attach to target cells are shown. The background is a complex texture at bottom fading to bright red at the top.
  • Cutaway model of an influenza virus particle showing internal structures. Superficially you can see the spikes of Haemagglutinin and Neuraminidase. These spikes pass through the viral envelope to dock with the underlying matrix (M) proteins. Inside the matrix shell you can glimpse the ribonucleoproteins that house the viral genome. Flu viruses have eight of these RNPs. If two or more strains infect the same cell, then progeny viruses can incorporate segments from more than one parent leading to new and possibly more dangerous strains. This is called genetic reassortment. Flu occurs in seasonal epidemics and periodically as major pandemics.Cutaway model of an influenza virus particle showing internal structures. Superficially you can see the spikes of Haemagglutinin and Neuraminidase. These spikes pass through the viral envelope to dock with the underlying matrix (M) proteins. Inside the matrix shell you can glimpse the ribonucleoproteins that house the viral genome. Flu viruses have eight of these RNPs. If two or more strains infect the same cell, then progeny viruses can incorporate segments from more than one parent leading to new and possibly more dangerous strains. This is called genetic reassortment. Flu occurs in seasonal epidemics and periodically as major pandemics.
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    • VIRUS-Influenza-3D-3-blue.tiff
      27/02/2012: Cutaway model of an influenza virus particle showing internal structures. Superficially you can see the spikes of Haemagglutinin and Neuraminidase. These spikes pass through the viral envelope to dock with the underlying matrix (M) proteins. Inside the matrix shell you can glimpse the ribonucleoproteins that house the viral genome. Flu viruses have eight of these RNPs. If two or more strains infect the same cell, then progeny viruses can incorporate segments from more than one parent leading to new and possibly more dangerous strains. This is called genetic reassortment. Flu occurs in seasonal epidemics and periodically as major pandemics.
  • Three HIV particles (virions) showing the matrix protein shell (blue), and the viral core (pink). The core contains the viral genetic material (RNA). The virus is covered by an envelope (translucent green) derived from the host cell during budding. Spikes (golden) allow the virus to attach to target cells. The background is a complex texture at bottom fading to bright red at the top.Three HIV particles (virions) showing the matrix protein shell (blue), and the viral core (pink). The core contains the viral genetic material (RNA). The virus is covered by an envelope (translucent green) derived from the host cell during budding. Spikes (golden) allow the virus to attach to target cells. The background is a complex texture at bottom fading to bright red at the top.
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    • HIV-three-virions-on-Red.tiff
      27/08/2012: Three HIV particles (virions) showing the matrix protein shell (blue), and the viral core (pink). The core contains the viral genetic material (RNA). The virus is covered by an envelope (translucent green) derived from the host cell during budding. Spikes (golden) allow the virus to attach to target cells. The background is a complex texture at bottom fading to bright red at the top.
  • Hepatitis B virus particle showing internal structures.Hepatitis B virus particle showing internal structures.
  • Hepatitis B virus particle showing internal structures.Hepatitis B virus particle showing internal structures.
  • Human Papilloma Virus particles (HPV). HPV is the cause of some types of cervical cancer. A vaccine is now available against some of these viruses. Papilloma viruses are small icosahedral viruses containing a double stranded DNA genome. Certain species have been implicated in cervical cancer and a vaccine has now been developed against these viruses.

The translucent bluish outer layer represents the viral pentamer proteins (arranged as an icosahedral capsid). The red inner ball represents the double stranded DNA genome (viral genes).Human Papilloma Virus particles (HPV). HPV is the cause of some types of cervical cancer. A vaccine is now available against some of these viruses. Papilloma viruses are small icosahedral viruses containing a double stranded DNA genome. Certain species have been implicated in cervical cancer and a vaccine has now been developed against these viruses.

The translucent bluish outer layer represents the viral pentamer proteins (arranged as an icosahedral capsid). The red inner ball represents the double stranded DNA genome (viral genes).
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    • VIRUS-HPV-Human-Papilloma-Virus-9b2.tiff
      09/06/2012: Human Papilloma Virus particles (HPV). HPV is the cause of some types of cervical cancer. A vaccine is now available against some of these viruses. Papilloma viruses are small icosahedral viruses containing a double stranded DNA genome. Certain species have been implicated in cervical cancer and a vaccine has now been developed against these viruses. The translucent bluish outer layer represents the viral pentamer proteins (arranged as an icosahedral capsid). The red inner ball represents the double stranded DNA genome (viral genes).
  • Cutaway model of HIV showing the matrix protein shell (blue), and the viral core (purple). The virus is covered by an envelope (green translucent) derived from the host cell during budding). Some of the spikes (golden) that the virus uses to attach to target cells are shown. Shown with a black background.Cutaway model of HIV showing the matrix protein shell (blue), and the viral core (purple). The virus is covered by an envelope (green translucent) derived from the host cell during budding). Some of the spikes (golden) that the virus uses to attach to target cells are shown. Shown with a black background.
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    • HIV-virion-cutaway-black-6000-2.tiff
      23/08/2012: Cutaway model of HIV showing the matrix protein shell (blue), and the viral core (purple). The virus is covered by an envelope (green translucent) derived from the host cell during budding). Some of the spikes (golden) that the virus uses to attach to target cells are shown. Shown with a black background.
  • SARS-like CoronavirusSARS-like Coronavirus
  • Cutaway model of HIV showing the matrix protein shell (blue), and the viral core (purple). The virus is covered by an envelope (green translucent) derived from the host cell during budding). Some of the spikes (golden) that the virus uses to attach to target cells are shown.Cutaway model of HIV showing the matrix protein shell (blue), and the viral core (purple). The virus is covered by an envelope (green translucent) derived from the host cell during budding). Some of the spikes (golden) that the virus uses to attach to target cells are shown.
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    • HIV-virion-cutaway-white-6000-2.tiff
      23/08/2012: Cutaway model of HIV showing the matrix protein shell (blue), and the viral core (purple). The virus is covered by an envelope (green translucent) derived from the host cell during budding). Some of the spikes (golden) that the virus uses to attach to target cells are shown.
  • HIV virus particle, the retrovirus that causes AIDS.HIV virus particle, the retrovirus that causes AIDS.
  • Phage Therapy Conceptual Illustration: a bacteriophage virus particle is contained in a glassy antibiotic capsule to illustrate phage therapy. With increasing resistance to antibiotics, bacteriophages could become a major line of defence against resistant bacteria. Phages attack specific bacteria and so can provide a targeted alternative to antibiotics.Phage Therapy Conceptual Illustration: a bacteriophage virus particle is contained in a glassy antibiotic capsule to illustrate phage therapy. With increasing resistance to antibiotics, bacteriophages could become a major line of defence against resistant bacteria. Phages attack specific bacteria and so can provide a targeted alternative to antibiotics.
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    • Phage-Therapy-Capsule-Vertical-Hot-Yellow.tiff
      06/11/2013: Phage Therapy Conceptual Illustration: a bacteriophage virus particle is contained in a glassy antibiotic capsule to illustrate phage therapy. With increasing resistance to antibiotics, bacteriophages could become a major line of defence against resistant bacteria. Phages attack specific bacteria and so can provide a targeted alternative to antibiotics.
  • HIV virus particle, the retrovirus that causes AIDS.HIV virus particle, the retrovirus that causes AIDS.
  • Phage Therapy Conceptual Illustration: a bacteriophage virus particle is contained in a glassy antibiotic capsule to illustrate phage therapy. With increasing resistance to antibiotics, bacteriophages could become a major line of defence against resistant bacteria. Phages attack specific bacteria and so can provide a targeted alternative to antibiotics.Phage Therapy Conceptual Illustration: a bacteriophage virus particle is contained in a glassy antibiotic capsule to illustrate phage therapy. With increasing resistance to antibiotics, bacteriophages could become a major line of defence against resistant bacteria. Phages attack specific bacteria and so can provide a targeted alternative to antibiotics.
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    • Phage-Therapy-Capsules-CU-Hot-White.tiff
      06/11/2013: Phage Therapy Conceptual Illustration: a bacteriophage virus particle is contained in a glassy antibiotic capsule to illustrate phage therapy. With increasing resistance to antibiotics, bacteriophages could become a major line of defence against resistant bacteria. Phages attack specific bacteria and so can provide a targeted alternative to antibiotics.
  • Phage Therapy Conceptual Illustration: a bacteriophage virus particle is contained in a glassy antibiotic capsule to illustrate phage therapy. With increasing resistance to antibiotics, bacteriophages could become a major line of defence against resistant bacteria. Phages attack specific bacteria and so can provide a targeted alternative to antibiotics.Phage Therapy Conceptual Illustration: a bacteriophage virus particle is contained in a glassy antibiotic capsule to illustrate phage therapy. With increasing resistance to antibiotics, bacteriophages could become a major line of defence against resistant bacteria. Phages attack specific bacteria and so can provide a targeted alternative to antibiotics.
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    • Phage-Therapy-Capsules-CU-Hot-Yellow.tiff
      06/11/2013: Phage Therapy Conceptual Illustration: a bacteriophage virus particle is contained in a glassy antibiotic capsule to illustrate phage therapy. With increasing resistance to antibiotics, bacteriophages could become a major line of defence against resistant bacteria. Phages attack specific bacteria and so can provide a targeted alternative to antibiotics.
  • HIV virus particle, the retrovirus that causes AIDS. The virus is coated by an envelope (yellowish green) that is derived from the host cell during budding. Beneath the envelope lies the matrix protein shell (blue) through which the core (pink) can be glimpsed. The virus is covered by projecting knobs or spikes that hrelp it to attach to host cells.HIV virus particle, the retrovirus that causes AIDS. The virus is coated by an envelope (yellowish green) that is derived from the host cell during budding. Beneath the envelope lies the matrix protein shell (blue) through which the core (pink) can be glimpsed. The virus is covered by projecting knobs or spikes that hrelp it to attach to host cells.
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    • HIV-virion-red-background.tiff
      23/08/2012: HIV virus particle, the retrovirus that causes AIDS. The virus is coated by an envelope (yellowish green) that is derived from the host cell during budding. Beneath the envelope lies the matrix protein shell (blue) through which the core (pink) can be glimpsed. The virus is covered by projecting knobs or spikes that hrelp it to attach to host cells.
  • Phage Therapy Conceptual Illustration: a bacteriophage virus particle is contained in a glassy antibiotic capsule to illustrate phage therapy. With increasing resistance to antibiotics, bacteriophages could become a major line of defence against resistant bacteria. Phages attack specific bacteria and so can provide a targeted alternative to antibiotics.Phage Therapy Conceptual Illustration: a bacteriophage virus particle is contained in a glassy antibiotic capsule to illustrate phage therapy. With increasing resistance to antibiotics, bacteriophages could become a major line of defence against resistant bacteria. Phages attack specific bacteria and so can provide a targeted alternative to antibiotics.
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    • Phage-Therapy-Capsules-Group-Hot-Yellow.tiff
      06/11/2013: Phage Therapy Conceptual Illustration: a bacteriophage virus particle is contained in a glassy antibiotic capsule to illustrate phage therapy. With increasing resistance to antibiotics, bacteriophages could become a major line of defence against resistant bacteria. Phages attack specific bacteria and so can provide a targeted alternative to antibiotics.
  • Translucent cutaway model of HIV showing part of the matrix protein shell (blue), and the viral core (pink). The core contains the viral genetic material (RNA). The virus is covered by a lipid envelope (green) derived from the host cell plasma membrane during budding. Some of the spikes that the virus uses to attach to target cells are shown. The background is a complex texture fading up to sky blue.Translucent cutaway model of HIV showing part of the matrix protein shell (blue), and the viral core (pink). The core contains the viral genetic material (RNA). The virus is covered by a lipid envelope (green) derived from the host cell plasma membrane during budding. Some of the spikes that the virus uses to attach to target cells are shown. The background is a complex texture fading up to sky blue.
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    • HIV-virion-translucent-on-blue.tiff
      23/08/2012: Translucent cutaway model of HIV showing part of the matrix protein shell (blue), and the viral core (pink). The core contains the viral genetic material (RNA). The virus is covered by a lipid envelope (green) derived from the host cell plasma membrane during budding. Some of the spikes that the virus uses to attach to target cells are shown. The background is a complex texture fading up to sky blue.
  • Translucent cutaway model of HIV showing part of the matrix protein shell (blue), and the viral core (pink). The core contains the viral genetic material (RNA). The virus is covered by an envelope (translucent green) derived from the host cell during budding. Some of the spikes that the virus uses to attach to target cells are shown. The background is a complex texture at bottom fading to brilliant green at the top.Translucent cutaway model of HIV showing part of the matrix protein shell (blue), and the viral core (pink). The core contains the viral genetic material (RNA). The virus is covered by an envelope (translucent green) derived from the host cell during budding. Some of the spikes that the virus uses to attach to target cells are shown. The background is a complex texture at bottom fading to brilliant green at the top.
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    • HIV-Virion-Translucent-on-Green.tiff
      23/08/2012: Translucent cutaway model of HIV showing part of the matrix protein shell (blue), and the viral core (pink). The core contains the viral genetic material (RNA). The virus is covered by an envelope (translucent green) derived from the host cell during budding. Some of the spikes that the virus uses to attach to target cells are shown. The background is a complex texture at bottom fading to brilliant green at the top.
  • Phage Therapy Conceptual Illustration: a bacteriophage virus particle is contained in a glassy antibiotic capsule to illustrate phage therapy. With increasing resistance to antibiotics, bacteriophages could become a major line of defence against resistant bacteria. Phages attack specific bacteria and so can provide a targeted alternative to antibiotics.Phage Therapy Conceptual Illustration: a bacteriophage virus particle is contained in a glassy antibiotic capsule to illustrate phage therapy. With increasing resistance to antibiotics, bacteriophages could become a major line of defence against resistant bacteria. Phages attack specific bacteria and so can provide a targeted alternative to antibiotics.
    • Add to lightbox
    • Contact the contributor about this file
    • Phage-Therapy-Capsules-Group-Hot-White.tiff
      06/11/2013: Phage Therapy Conceptual Illustration: a bacteriophage virus particle is contained in a glassy antibiotic capsule to illustrate phage therapy. With increasing resistance to antibiotics, bacteriophages could become a major line of defence against resistant bacteria. Phages attack specific bacteria and so can provide a targeted alternative to antibiotics.
  • Phage Therapy Conceptual Illustration: a bacteriophage virus particle is contained in a glassy antibiotic capsule to illustrate phage therapy. With increasing resistance to antibiotics, bacteriophages could become a major line of defence against resistant bacteria. Phages attack specific bacteria and so can provide a targeted alternative to antibiotics.Phage Therapy Conceptual Illustration: a bacteriophage virus particle is contained in a glassy antibiotic capsule to illustrate phage therapy. With increasing resistance to antibiotics, bacteriophages could become a major line of defence against resistant bacteria. Phages attack specific bacteria and so can provide a targeted alternative to antibiotics.
    • Add to lightbox
    • Contact the contributor about this file
    • Phage-Therapy-Capsule-Vertical-Hot-White.tiff
      06/11/2013: Phage Therapy Conceptual Illustration: a bacteriophage virus particle is contained in a glassy antibiotic capsule to illustrate phage therapy. With increasing resistance to antibiotics, bacteriophages could become a major line of defence against resistant bacteria. Phages attack specific bacteria and so can provide a targeted alternative to antibiotics.
  • Phage Therapy Conceptual Illustration: bacteriophage virus particle in an old fashioned syringe to illustrate phage therapy. With increasing resistance to antibiotics, bacteriophages could become a major line of defence against resistant bacteria. Phages attack specific bacteria and so can provide a targeted alternative to antibiotics.Phage Therapy Conceptual Illustration: bacteriophage virus particle in an old fashioned syringe to illustrate phage therapy. With increasing resistance to antibiotics, bacteriophages could become a major line of defence against resistant bacteria. Phages attack specific bacteria and so can provide a targeted alternative to antibiotics.
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    • Phage-Therapy-Syringe.tiff
      11/11/2013: Phage Therapy Conceptual Illustration: bacteriophage virus particle in an old fashioned syringe to illustrate phage therapy. With increasing resistance to antibiotics, bacteriophages could become a major line of defence against resistant bacteria. Phages attack specific bacteria and so can provide a targeted alternative to antibiotics.
  • Two HIV particles (virions) showing the matrix protein shell (blue), and the viral core (pink). The core contains the viral genetic material (RNA). The virus is covered by an envelope (translucent green) derived from the host cell during budding. Spikes (golden) allow the virus to attach to target cells. The background is a complex texture at bottom fading to sky blue at the top.Two HIV particles (virions) showing the matrix protein shell (blue), and the viral core (pink). The core contains the viral genetic material (RNA). The virus is covered by an envelope (translucent green) derived from the host cell during budding. Spikes (golden) allow the virus to attach to target cells. The background is a complex texture at bottom fading to sky blue at the top.
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    • HIV-two-virions-on-Sky-Blue.tiff
      24/08/2012: Two HIV particles (virions) showing the matrix protein shell (blue), and the viral core (pink). The core contains the viral genetic material (RNA). The virus is covered by an envelope (translucent green) derived from the host cell during budding. Spikes (golden) allow the virus to attach to target cells. The background is a complex texture at bottom fading to sky blue at the top.
  • Phage Therapy Conceptual Illustration: bacteriophage virus particle whose lower half is a syringe. With increasing resistance to antibiotics, bacteriophages could become a major line of defence against resistant bacteria. Phages attack specific bacteria and so can provide a targeted alternative to antibiotics.Phage Therapy Conceptual Illustration: bacteriophage virus particle whose lower half is a syringe. With increasing resistance to antibiotics, bacteriophages could become a major line of defence against resistant bacteria. Phages attack specific bacteria and so can provide a targeted alternative to antibiotics.
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    • Phage-Therapy-Syringe-Tail-1.tiff
      11/11/2013: Phage Therapy Conceptual Illustration: bacteriophage virus particle whose lower half is a syringe. With increasing resistance to antibiotics, bacteriophages could become a major line of defence against resistant bacteria. Phages attack specific bacteria and so can provide a targeted alternative to antibiotics.
  • Phage Therapy Conceptual Illustration: a bacteriophage virus particle is contained in an old fashioned green medicine bottle to illustrate phage therapy. Viewed orthographically to create a clean and diagrammatic look. With increasing resistance to antibiotics, bacteriophages could become a major line of defence against resistant bacteria. Phages attack specific bacteria and so can provide a targeted alternative to antibiotics.Phage Therapy Conceptual Illustration: a bacteriophage virus particle is contained in an old fashioned green medicine bottle to illustrate phage therapy. Viewed orthographically to create a clean and diagrammatic look. With increasing resistance to antibiotics, bacteriophages could become a major line of defence against resistant bacteria. Phages attack specific bacteria and so can provide a targeted alternative to antibiotics.
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    • Phage-Therapy-Medicine-Bottle-isometric-1.tiff
      08/11/2013: Phage Therapy Conceptual Illustration: a bacteriophage virus particle is contained in an old fashioned green medicine bottle to illustrate phage therapy. Viewed orthographically to create a clean and diagrammatic look. With increasing resistance to antibiotics, bacteriophages could become a major line of defence against resistant bacteria. Phages attack specific bacteria and so can provide a targeted alternative to antibiotics.
  • Illustration of replication of influenza virus. At top right, a virus particle, or virion, docks with the cell surface and enters the cell. The viral RNA is released and travels to the nucleus (where the cell's DNA is housed). From the nucleus, the viral genes direct the production of new viral components. These aggregate below the cell surface and organise themselves into new virus particles. The newly forming virus particles bud from the cell and are released to infect other cells.Illustration of replication of influenza virus. At top right, a virus particle, or virion, docks with the cell surface and enters the cell. The viral RNA is released and travels to the nucleus (where the cell's DNA is housed). From the nucleus, the viral genes direct the production of new viral components. These aggregate below the cell surface and organise themselves into new virus particles. The newly forming virus particles bud from the cell and are released to infect other cells.
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    • VIRUS-influenza-life-cycle-white.tiff
      22/09/2011: Illustration of replication of influenza virus. At top right, a virus particle, or virion, docks with the cell surface and enters the cell. The viral RNA is released and travels to the nucleus (where the cell's DNA is housed). From the nucleus, the viral genes direct the production of new viral components. These aggregate below the cell surface and organise themselves into new virus particles. The newly forming virus particles bud from the cell and are released to infect other cells.
  • Two HIV particles (virions) showing the matrix protein shell (blue), and the viral core (pink). The core contains the viral genetic material (RNA). The virus is covered by an envelope (translucent green) derived from the host cell during budding. Spikes (golden) allow the virus to attach to target cells. The background is a complex texture at bottom fading to bright green at the top.Two HIV particles (virions) showing the matrix protein shell (blue), and the viral core (pink). The core contains the viral genetic material (RNA). The virus is covered by an envelope (translucent green) derived from the host cell during budding. Spikes (golden) allow the virus to attach to target cells. The background is a complex texture at bottom fading to bright green at the top.
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    • HIV-two-virions-on-Bright-Green.tiff
      24/08/2012: Two HIV particles (virions) showing the matrix protein shell (blue), and the viral core (pink). The core contains the viral genetic material (RNA). The virus is covered by an envelope (translucent green) derived from the host cell during budding. Spikes (golden) allow the virus to attach to target cells. The background is a complex texture at bottom fading to bright green at the top.
  • Phage Therapy Conceptual Illustration: bacteriophage virus particle whose lower half is a syringe. With increasing resistance to antibiotics, bacteriophages could become a major line of defence against resistant bacteria. Phages attack specific bacteria and so can provide a targeted alternative to antibiotics.Phage Therapy Conceptual Illustration: bacteriophage virus particle whose lower half is a syringe. With increasing resistance to antibiotics, bacteriophages could become a major line of defence against resistant bacteria. Phages attack specific bacteria and so can provide a targeted alternative to antibiotics.
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    • Phage-Therapy-Syringe-Tail-2.tiff
      11/11/2013: Phage Therapy Conceptual Illustration: bacteriophage virus particle whose lower half is a syringe. With increasing resistance to antibiotics, bacteriophages could become a major line of defence against resistant bacteria. Phages attack specific bacteria and so can provide a targeted alternative to antibiotics.
  • Influenza viruses have a segmented genome, which means that their genetic information comes in separate pieces. These segments join together as new virus particles form in the host cell. If a cell happens to be infected by two or more different varieties of flu, then new particles can contain gene segments taken from different parent viruses. This is how the genes become mixed up or reassorted and is how flu can change so rapidly. In this diagram, you can see how a blue and orange type gives rise to a mixed type containing both blue and orange segments.Influenza viruses have a segmented genome, which means that their genetic information comes in separate pieces. These segments join together as new virus particles form in the host cell. If a cell happens to be infected by two or more different varieties of flu, then new particles can contain gene segments taken from different parent viruses. This is how the genes become mixed up or reassorted and is how flu can change so rapidly. In this diagram, you can see how a blue and orange type gives rise to a mixed type containing both blue and orange segments.
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    • VIRUS-influenza-re-assort-W.tiff
      22/09/2011: Influenza viruses have a segmented genome, which means that their genetic information comes in separate pieces. These segments join together as new virus particles form in the host cell. If a cell happens to be infected by two or more different varieties of flu, then new particles can contain gene segments taken from different parent viruses. This is how the genes become mixed up or reassorted and is how flu can change so rapidly. In this diagram, you can see how a blue and orange type gives rise to a mixed type containing both blue and orange segments.
  • Phage Therapy Conceptual Illustration: a bacteriophage virus particle is contained in an old fashioned green medicine bottle (partly filled with yellow syrup) to illustrate phage therapy. With increasing resistance to antibiotics, bacteriophages could become a major line of defence against resistant bacteria. Phages attack specific bacteria and so can provide a targeted alternative to antibiotics.Phage Therapy Conceptual Illustration: a bacteriophage virus particle is contained in an old fashioned green medicine bottle (partly filled with yellow syrup) to illustrate phage therapy. With increasing resistance to antibiotics, bacteriophages could become a major line of defence against resistant bacteria. Phages attack specific bacteria and so can provide a targeted alternative to antibiotics.
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    • Phage-Therapy-Medicine-Bottle-2.tiff
      08/11/2013: Phage Therapy Conceptual Illustration: a bacteriophage virus particle is contained in an old fashioned green medicine bottle (partly filled with yellow syrup) to illustrate phage therapy. With increasing resistance to antibiotics, bacteriophages could become a major line of defence against resistant bacteria. Phages attack specific bacteria and so can provide a targeted alternative to antibiotics.
  • Influenza Virus Vaccine Conceptual Illustration showing an influenza virus particle inside a syringe.Influenza Virus Vaccine Conceptual Illustration showing an influenza virus particle inside a syringe.
  • Two HIV particles (virions) showing the matrix protein shell (blue), and the viral core (pink). The core contains the viral genetic material (RNA). The virus is covered by an envelope (translucent green) derived from the host cell during budding. Spikes (golden) allow the virus to attach to target cells. The background is a complex texture at bottom fading to hot pink at the top.Two HIV particles (virions) showing the matrix protein shell (blue), and the viral core (pink). The core contains the viral genetic material (RNA). The virus is covered by an envelope (translucent green) derived from the host cell during budding. Spikes (golden) allow the virus to attach to target cells. The background is a complex texture at bottom fading to hot pink at the top.
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    • HIV-two-virions-on-Pink.tiff
      24/08/2012: Two HIV particles (virions) showing the matrix protein shell (blue), and the viral core (pink). The core contains the viral genetic material (RNA). The virus is covered by an envelope (translucent green) derived from the host cell during budding. Spikes (golden) allow the virus to attach to target cells. The background is a complex texture at bottom fading to hot pink at the top.
  • Phage Therapy Conceptual Illustration: a bacteriophage virus particle is contained in an old fashioned green medicine bottle to illustrate phage therapy. With increasing resistance to antibiotics, bacteriophages could become a major line of defence against resistant bacteria. Phages attack specific bacteria and so can provide a targeted alternative to antibiotics.Phage Therapy Conceptual Illustration: a bacteriophage virus particle is contained in an old fashioned green medicine bottle to illustrate phage therapy. With increasing resistance to antibiotics, bacteriophages could become a major line of defence against resistant bacteria. Phages attack specific bacteria and so can provide a targeted alternative to antibiotics.
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    • Phage-Therapy-Medicine-Bottle-3.tiff
      08/11/2013: Phage Therapy Conceptual Illustration: a bacteriophage virus particle is contained in an old fashioned green medicine bottle to illustrate phage therapy. With increasing resistance to antibiotics, bacteriophages could become a major line of defence against resistant bacteria. Phages attack specific bacteria and so can provide a targeted alternative to antibiotics.
  • Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is a small enveloped + single stranded RNA virus in the family Flaviviridae (L. Flavus: yellow named after Yellow Fever) in the genus Hepacivirus. The radiating spikes represent E (Envelope) proteins. Each spike is a dimer of E1 and E2 anchored into the viral envelope. This viral envelope is derived from host cell ER membrane. Below that is the core (C) proteins. The core contains the RNA genome.Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is a small enveloped + single stranded RNA virus in the family Flaviviridae (L. Flavus: yellow named after Yellow Fever) in the genus Hepacivirus. The radiating spikes represent E (Envelope) proteins. Each spike is a dimer of E1 and E2 anchored into the viral envelope. This viral envelope is derived from host cell ER membrane. Below that is the core (C) proteins. The core contains the RNA genome.
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    • VIRUS-Hepatitis-C-Virus-blue.tiff
      14/12/2011: Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is a small enveloped + single stranded RNA virus in the family Flaviviridae (L. Flavus: yellow named after Yellow Fever) in the genus Hepacivirus. The radiating spikes represent E (Envelope) proteins. Each spike is a dimer of E1 and E2 anchored into the viral envelope. This viral envelope is derived from host cell ER membrane. Below that is the core (C) proteins. The core contains the RNA genome.
  • Influenza Virus Vaccine Conceptual Illustration showing an influenza virus particle inside a syringe.Influenza Virus Vaccine Conceptual Illustration showing an influenza virus particle inside a syringe.

 

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